The history of Fiano di Avellino
It was the Greeks who brought the original Fiano vine , the “Vitis Apicia” to Italy: the first vines were planted in Lapio , a locality which took its name from the grape; grown in the heart of Irpinia, or the province of Avellino. Lapio, to date, falls within two Reali DOCG . (Denomination of Controlled and Guaranteed Origin) Fiano di Avellino and Taurasi. The third area of Irpinia is Greco di Tufo.
Fiano di Avellino is an Italian wine that benefits from the denomination of controlled and guaranteed origin, as per regulation, is vinified in 26 municipalities: Avellino, Lapio, Atripalda, Cesinali, Aiello del Sabato, Santo Stefano del Sole, Sorbo Serpico, Salza Irpina, Parolise, San Potito Ultra, Candida, Manocalzati, Pratola Serra, Montefredane, Grottolella, Capriglia Irpina, Sant'Angelo a Scala, Summonte, Mercogliano, Forino, Contrada, Monteforte Irpino, Ospedaletto d'Alpinolo, Montefalcione, Santa Lucia di Serino and San Michele di Serino
To be regulated, Fiano di Avellino DOCG goes on the market 2 years after the harvest.
The current production area of the Fiano di Avellino DOCG in its current conformation was already described in this way in 1642 by the historian Fra' Scipione Bellabona in the "Reports of the city of Avellino". In terms of the lithological characteristics of the substrate (Geological Service of Italy, Sheet 185 "Salerno"), the Fiano di Avellino DOCG distribution area is remarkably articulated, also given its significant extension. The wider band, the central one, which includes the municipal areas (from north to south) of Grottolella, Montefredane, Avellino, Forino, Contrada, Cesinali and Aiello del Sabato, is characterized by the same ocher ash and pumice layers of the II Phlegraean period , alternating with paleosols and loose debris and pyroclastites sl with rare tufitic levels and small pumice from the Greco di Tufo area, or from their support on clays, marly and sandy clays, sometimes with gypsum.
In the western band, the territories of S. Angelo a Scala and Summonte see the presence of sandstones with intercalations of marl; those of Ospedaletto d'Alpinolo, Mercogliano and Monteforte Irpino of the same cinerites of the central band, also resting on limestone.
The eastern belt is more complex: those same cinerites in the territories of Pratola Serra and Manocalzati rest on clays and marly clays, sometimes with gypsum and in those of Lapio and Atripalda on various colored clays with stone intercalations, which also represent the only lithotype present in the areas of Montefalcione, Parolise and San Potito Ultra. In the territories of Salza Irpina and Sorbo Serpico, marly and sandy clays and various colored clays clearly prevail; in that of S. Stefano del Sole, the lithological succession is characterized by detrital deposits, which rest on clays, in turn roofed with limestones. Detrital and alluvial deposits outcrop in S. Lucia di Serino and, on top of the limestone, in S. Michele di Serino.
The thermal, hydrometric and anemometric conditions that characterize the area are almost ideal for a maturation process characterized by gradualness and balance between sugar content and acidity, allowing the achievement of fine wine productions. This favorable situation is clearly due to the geographical position and topography of the territory. The climatic trend both in terms of heat and precipitation is strongly influenced by the numerous hectares of forest that cover the mountains which characterize the surrounding environment and which discourage overheating. In general, the winter weather is harsh, not of
there are rarely snowfalls, as the summer climate is quite mild.
The cultivation of vines in the area is ancient and connected to the presence of the Sabato river which crosses the hilly formations that characterize it and derives its name from the Sabine people, whose eponym was Sabus (Cat. apd. DYONIS, II, 49; LIB VIII, 41) or Sabatini, a Samnite tribe settled in the basin of the river Sabatus (Livy). In the area of origin the municipality of Lapio, located in the hills east of Avellino at an altitude of
590 m above sea level, it is considered a place that explains the possible "native" origin of the vine as can also be found in a 1642 publication by the friar Scipione Bella Bona entitled: «Reports on the city of Avellino», in which the author, speaking of the he ancient Avellino, says that near its borders there were three castles, one of which in Monteforte, another in Serpico and the third located in the agricultural area called Apia (today Lapio) where the wine called Apiano was produced
In the 19th century the wine-growing activity of the entire province, with a production exceeding one million hectoliters widely exported, and of the Fiano di Avellino area, were the economic backbone of the agricultural economy of the years and of the social fabric to lead to the construction of the first railway in Irpinia, shortly thereafter properly called "wine railway", which connected the best and largest wine production centers of the Colline del Sabato and Colline del Calore directly with the major Italian and European markets. In particular in the Fiano area, again
today, there are the still existing stations of: Avellino and Lapio.
The establishment of the Royal School of Viticulture & Enology of Avellino contributes to making the area one of the most important Italian winegrowing centres, which will be the architect of the diffusion of Fiano in the hinterland of Avellino and throughout the area of the middle valley of the Saturday. The presence of the School, as a driving force of socio-economic progress, will lead the Avellino wine chain to become one of the first Italian provinces for the production and export of wine, mainly to France, as the sources show.
On a scientific level, the technical-economic value of the productions of Fiano di Avellino is recognized in all the studies of ampelography and oenology that have taken place over time. In 1882 the director of the Enological School of Avellino Michele Carlucci, made public the "observations made in 14 of vinification in separation of the Fiano grape and the vinification methods for it developed in honor with the commercial request". In 1956, the Office International du Vin published in full the ampelographic study on Fiano by Violante and Ciarimboli, which confirmed: "it is the wine of the vine grown in the southern provinces and especially in the Avellino area since ancient times".
For Fiano di Avellino, four choice "terroirs" have been identified where the varietal characteristics of the Fiano vine are expressed, following a common thread, with peculiar accents and nuances depending on the altitude, exposure and composition of the soil.
Lapio: wines rich in structure are obtained, capable of expressing uncommon qualities of acidity and minerality. The strong aromatic connotation, then, means that the Fiano di Avellino wines obtained in these areas often resemble real mountain wines.
Summonte: land difficult to work. The wines offer concentration, power with fruity notes and little mineral. Powerful wines with, I repeat, a notable fruity finish.
Montefredane: arigllosa and clayey hill that enhances the mineral notes that characterize wines of excellent longevity now demonstrated.
The hilly area east of Avellino cannot be identified with a single municipality as there are numerous centers involved in production. Here the sandy soils offer typical notes of toasted hazelnuts which recall a smoky character of non-mineral origin. Wines ready in the medium term.
Fiano di Avellino represents the spearhead of southern white enology: acidity and finesse are the two characteristics that make it attractive to the large mass of consumers while enthusiasts appreciate it for its incredible propensity for aging.
The viticultural tradition of this area in the province of Avellino has deep and consolidated roots from a notable and continuous technical-scientific contribution and from an exemplary commitment of the producers who, with constant significant cultural and technological results, have contributed to improve the quality and to spread and to establish the Fiano di Avellino wines on national and international markets.